The leaf area exposed to sunlight, known as the grapevine canopy, captures sun energy to perform photosynthesis, regulate water use through transpiration, and modulate the microclimate of ripening grapes. Determinations about how much canopy is enough, as compared with too much or too little, are critical during the early stages of […]

Phenolics within the grape play an important role in a wine’s sensorial properties, such as color, astringency, mouthfeel, and bitterness. For example, increasing the size of tannin molecules will increase astringency, or a higher level of epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) will lead to more chalky dryness and a lower coarseness.  Thus, vineyard […]

Nitrogen absorption is one of the key contributors to vine vigor and fruit quality. While nitrogen deficiency can limit vine growth, excessive nitrogen could lead to problems such as excessive shoot growth and shading. Nitrogen absorption mainly happens in two phases: between flowering and veraison and in the fall. Getting […]